Maternal Nutritional Status during Pregnancy
The single most important factor impacting pregnancy outcome is the availability of nutrition throughout pregnancy. The health of both the mother and the fetal will be jeopardised if the supply is insufficient.
A woman with inadequate nutrition has a higher risk of anemia and negative pregnancy outcomes include postpartum haemorrhage, preterm deliveries, and fetal growth retardation, all of which raise the risk of prematurity and low birth weight. According to the fourth National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 20.2% of men and 22.9% of women are undernourished.
Mother weight growth throughout pregnancy serves as an indirect indicator of maternal nutrition. According to Institute of Medicine recommendations, a healthy woman's overall weight gain during a singleton pregnancy averages about 15 pounds.
During the first trimester, mother will grow 1-3 kgs, and during the second and third trimesters, mother will gain 0.35-0.5 kgs per week. The average daily calorie consumption of moms with normal B.M.I was 2012 kcal. The average daily calorie consumption of mothers with a B.M.I of less than 18.5 kg/m2 and mothers with a B.M.I of more than 25 was 1866 kcal and 1975 kcal, respectively.
Rice, sambhar, milk, idly, fruits including apple, banana, dates, rassam, and mutton soups were among the foods consumed by the mothers during their pregnancy. There was a substantial (pvalue 0.05) link between the mother's parity, and calorie intake.
Due to the nursing process, mothers are exposed to nutritional stress, and their health risks are compounded by frequent pregnancies, pregnancy issues such as hyperemesis, and a lack of access to nutrients.
Mothers face nutritional stress as a result of breastfeeding, and their health risks are exacerbated by multiple pregnancies, pregnancy difficulties such as hyperemesis, a lack of access to and control over finances, inadequate education, and excessive demands on their time, among other factors. In India, as in many other nations, there are traditional ideas about which foods a pregnant woman should or should not consume during her pregnancy. This leads to common misconceptions in India, such as the assumption that pregnant women should eat less than they did before pregnancy or should not increase their diet during pregnancy. There are more 'hot' foods in Tamil Nadu populations (papaya, pineapple, mango, animal foods, wheat, and sesame seeds). Women do not develop an awareness of these beliefs. It is critical to overcome the cultural habits that have historically harmed women's nutritional and health condition.
Nutrition throughout pregnancy is crucial for a healthy pregnancy. Even before becoming pregnant, women may be malnourished, which can have a negative impact on the pregnancy. Undernutrition in the mother might result in poor intrauterine growth and a low birth weight for the baby. Furthermore, the primary causes of maternal death, such as bleeding and infection, are linked directly or indirectly to nutrition.
The result of a pregnancy is influenced by the mother's eating habits. Women need to be educated about nutrition and become more conscious of it. Maternal nutritional status has an impact on pregnancy outcomes such as birth weight, NICU admission, and postnatal problems.
There is no doubt that maternal nutrition throughout pregnancy is vital for a healthy pregnancy result. The purpose of this study was to look into the influence of eating habits on pregnancy outcomes.
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